But suppose world population will reach 10.1 billion by the end of this century. Would that be a good or a bad thing? Arguably a good thing, on several grounds. One is that it would enable greater specialization, which reduces costs . . . .
The downside of population growth is the pressure it places on the environment and natural resources, especially the former, since the price system provides efficient rationing of resource use.
Do the benefits outweigh the costs?