. . . [T]he descendants of societies that traditionally practiced plough agriculture, today have less equal gender norms, measured using reported gender-role attitudes and female participation in the workplace, politics and entrepreneurial activities. To test for the importance of culture, we examine second-generation immigrants living within Europe and the United States. We find that even among individuals born and raised in the same country, those with a heritage of traditional plough use exhibit less equal beliefs about gender roles today.Source: a working paper by Alesina, Giuliano, and Nunn (March 1012).