While on aggregate the female labor force participation rate in Brazil increased from 46 to 53 percent, we show that states with greater exposure to trade liberalization experienced faster increases in female labor force participation and employment.
The paper refers to the reforms that took place between 1987 and 1994. The increase in female labor-force participation happened in the two-year period after the reforms. The paper, "Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil", by Gaddis and Pieters, is here (August 2012).
HT: Maximo Rossi.