Feb 28, 2012

Shadow economy


The graphs are from the paper "Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy" by Singh, Jain-Chandra, Mohommad (2012). The authors conclude: "[I]nstitutions are a more important determinant of the size of the underground economy than tax rates." Compare this argument with Pickhardt and Jordi Sarda's in a another new paper (2012)
Contrary to most other studies, we show that the latter [the Spanish underground economy] is not predominantly caused by tax pressure, but by labor market aspects, macroeconomic influences and criminal activities. 

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    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  25. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  26. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

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  29. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : scott james
    Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. AFFORDABLE/COMFORTABLE LOAN OFFER WITHOUT COST/STRESS CONTACT US VIA Call/Text +1(646)820-1981 WhatsApp: +19292227023 Email drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com
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  31. We are major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe. 
    We are major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe. 
    we always deliver on time and precision as Set forth in the agreement. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs, project financing, Credit line enhancement, Corporate Loans (Business Start-up Loans or Business Expansion Loans), Equipment Procurement Loans (Industrial Equipment, Air crafts, Ships, etc.) as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed, Our Terms and Conditions are reasonable. 

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS: 
    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG)/SBLC (Appendix A) 
    2. Total Face Value: 10M MIN to 50B MAX USD or Euro 
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, UBS or any Top 25 . 
    4. Age: One Year, One Day 
    5. Leasing Price: 4 1% 
    6. Sale Price: 32 2% 
    7. Delivery by SWIFT . 
    8. Payment: MT103-23 
    9. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days 

    We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct. 

    Name:May Gary 
    Email:algecoglobalfinanceplc@gmail.com 
    Skype::algecoglobalfinanceplc    
    or let us know via WhatsApp:+1(218)2417690 

    ReplyDelete
  32. Genuine provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of 4+2 of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA.

    Contact : Mr. EASON RONNIE
    Email: easonronnie9@gmail.com
    skype : keatcheng2@gmail.com

    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All inquires to Mr. Eason should include the following minimum information so I can quickly address your needs:

    Complete contact information:
    What exactly do you need?
    How long do you need it for?
    Are you a principal borrower or a broker?

    Contact me for more details.

    Whatsapp: +19893413179

    ReplyDelete
  33. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Thomas Wolfgang
    Email : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  36. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Thomas Wolfgang
    Email : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  37. Hello
    We are a trade finance company that uses our own credit lines to facilitate the issuance of financial guarantees like BG, SBLC, DLC and more. If our services will be of help to you, let us know so we can guide you with our process.
    Mobile | WhatsApp: +19893413179
    Email:mohammedahsan877@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  38. GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
    We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Thomas Wolfgang
    Email : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com
    Skype : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  39. We are Direct Provider of BG (Bank Guarantee),SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit) for lease and purchase.Offer is open to both individuals and corporate bodies.


    Our Services

    Bank Guarantee (BG)
    Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC)
    SWIFT MT 799 MT 760 Bank Guarantee (SBLC)
    SBLC BG Monetization.
    Issuance by top AA rated Bank

    Lease fee 6 + 2
    Purchase fee 36 + 2

    Contact Us:Email mrbennettfinance47@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
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  41. Dear Sir,

    We are broker firm in London-UK, we have direct Provider of BG/SBLC specifically for Lease and purchase, The provider is tested and trusted. We have been dealing with the company for paste 20 years. Interested Agent/Lessee should contact us.

    Email: atgcapitalandfinance@gmail.com

    Skype ID:
    atgcapitalandfinance@outlook.com


    Whatsapp : +1 (605)496-9997

    LUCAS SMITH

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  43. Dear Sir,

    We are broker firm in London-UK, we have direct Provider of BG/SBLC specifically for Lease and purchase, The provider is tested and trusted. We have been dealing with the company for paste 20 years. Interested Agent/Lessee should contact us.

    Email: financeaperiolimited936@gmail.com

    Skype ID: financeaperiolimited936@outlook.com



    Best regards,

    FRED ARNAZ

    ReplyDelete
  44. We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.
    FOR LEASING OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING PRICE = 4%+2%
    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    PURCHASE PRICE = 32%+2%
    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
    loan financing by providing you with yearly.
    RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
    I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
    Name : Christopher Liam
    Email : trustedfinancemandate@gmail.com
    Skype : trustedfinancemandate@gmail.com
    WhatsApp: +13475948294

    ReplyDelete
  45. DEAR SIR

    I am a direct Mandate to a genuinely renowned
    Investment Finance Company offering Cash & Asset
    Backed Financial Instruments on Lease and Sale at
    the best rates and with the most feasible
    procedures.

    Instruments offered can be put in all forms of trade
    and can be monetized or discounted for direct
    funding. we have direct Provider of BG/SBLC specifically for Lease and purchase.
    For Inquiry contact

    Email: financialinstrumentlimited07@gmail.com

    Skype: financialinstrumentlimited07@outlook.com

    WHATAPP NUMBER: +44 7535 963820

    Regards,

    Liam Herzberg

    ReplyDelete