Using data from a survey conducted recently in Madagascar, this article analyses what teachers and school directors do when they are at work and how they manage the pedagogical process. The results show that in only 15% of the sample schools do all of the teachers and school directors consistently perform the tasks considered essential to their role. Engagement at work is found to be significantly lower among contract teachers than among civil service teachers, and the ability of teachers to manage the pedagogical process does not improve with accumulated experience. Other noteworthy features in the results are that the principal is the key agent in the school and that leadership is vitally important in developing effective schools.
Source: Gérard Lassibille (Journal of African Economies, 2013). I did not find the full paper online.